Abstract the Development of creative abilities and mental flexibility in children
At the beginning of the XXI century. in the theory and practice of education particularly acute for the development of creative abilities of pupils. This is because the orientation of the schools on the formation of students mainly reproductive thinking has led to the fact that most graduates who perfectly well knew the school curriculum, do not know how to use these knowledge in unusual situations, when solving problem tasks in various spheres of public life. Unfortunately in most of the current secondary school graduates is not developed creative thinking, they are poorly prepared for the synthesis of the information received, turning it into a flexible system suitable for use in different situations; in fact not prepared for creative analysis of the situation. However, we know that children are naturally curious and eager to learn. To enable every child to develop their abilities, necessary mental guidance from the teacher.
the main task of the teacher in each lesson of educational and educational process should be the development of the child’s mental flexibility.
its time Ushinsky wrote about the fact that the logic of nature accessible to children. This idea E. Ushinskogo applied Sukhomlinsky. In Sukhomlinsky proposed his own system of learning to think. Under the system of lessons thinking Sukhomlinsky understood the school of thought, without which there is “full, effective mental work to every class not only in elementary school, but in the later periods of learning and cognitive development. She, this school is the Foundation of creative mental powers necessary for the development of new knowledge “.
Typical conditions of the system lessons thinking. Developed by Sukhomlinsky, were:
High erudition of the teacher.
Management thinking students should begin before the lesson.
The need to prepare not to the individual lesson, but in several, i.e. to the system of lessons.
Special attention should be given immediate organization of cognitive activity. During the lesson.
concern about the development of students ‘ thinking during the lesson requires the peculiarities of their mental processes, in particular, of the thinking process.
Emotional coloring of the lesson facilitates students ‘ cognitive activity, contributes to the development of their thinking.
Thinking, of course, a highly individual process.
So, Sukhomlinsky important tasks believed to teach a child to think, “to understand the world and themselves in it, to know the riches of science, art, nature – taught to live through raising a thinker. Consequently, all done for the development of the national school of thinking, where there is the joy of creativity, actively shaping the human personality, living soul blossoms. ”
About the need to develop logical thinking stated in the explanatory notes to the curriculum, write about it in methodical manuals for teachers, but the specific programs for the formation of logical thinking techniques no. And so the work is conducted without knowledge of the specific system techniques their contents and order form. And this leads to the fact that quite a large number of students has primary techniques of logical thinking, even in high school, and this, in turn, leads to defective assimilation of educational material for 10 years. 10 years workmanship. Not much.
Why the same material one child grasps instantly, the second slow, and the third does not understand? Not because in the first case, mine, figuratively speaking, sow the grain is prepared in the preschool childhood the soil, in the second – plowed and not quality. And in the third – on the dried soil, which was not concerned with the plow? The ground for this is the maturity of a child’s logical thinking techniques: the ability to compare and analyze.
We say, “Compare”, and the child does not know how to do it. It turns out that this also should be taught. Or refer to the student: “Analyze the problem”, but does not explain that such an analysis. Not knowing the exact value of the action, which the child must perform, it covers not the essence, but only the form. Children find the area of a rectangle by multiplying the length by the width, not realizing the main thing: why we need to multiply. And because of the error. It is very difficult to remember a set of unrelated facts. For example, a child confidently adds in a column that tells what number recorded, where and what to remember move. The question arises – “Why do so and not Vice versa?”
The child is lost, because the shape possessed by it, and the principle bit of the action was left without attention.
Ignorance, misunderstanding builds up, and after a while lost interest in study. The circle is closed.
So, we must begin with the preparation of bent, on the development of logical thinking, ABC learning.
With his considerable experience, I saw that the kids want something new and interesting. And I’m working like all of our teachers sought out drop by drop those logic problems that have appeared on the pages of Newspapers, magazines, training manuals were compiled independently by analogy. Many borrowed from TV’s “finest hour” – before, now the game “Algy Eureka”.
Use a lot of the situations, tasks, cognitive tasks, games to develop logical thinking, memory, for development of creative abilities of the child.
For example the game “Find the odd word.”
Oak (what?) old, tall, white-trunked, branched.
Cherry (what?) delicious, red, ripe, strong.
The book (which one?) interesting, new, high, love.
It is a long and painstaking work, but the kids liked it, I see the result and don’t regret the time spent.
In choosing jobs I’m going from simple tasks to more complex.
The game “Continue the series looks like this:
The term “logic” comes from the Greek word “logos” which means “thought”, “mind”, “regularity and is used to denote of a set of rules that govern the process of thinking. In other words, logic is the science which reveals the mechanism of thinking.
Of course, it is possible to think logically, to make inferences, to refute the false arguments of the opponent and not knowing logic, just as some people are able to speak and write correctly without knowing the rules of grammar, but, unfortunately, such abilities have not all. Therefore, the “rules of thought” to learn is no less important than the rules of the Ukrainian language.
There are 2 types of thinking:
In children of primary school dominated the first type, and the content of educational programs designed primarily for second, that is abstract thinking. It is the shape and operations of abstract thinking and studying formal logic.
Operations Of The Form
To reveal the nature of these transactions and forms, be taught to hold them not only in the classroom but also in everyday-nomu life – the purpose of my lessons.
We first give an example of a lesson where the children learned to distinguish the attributes of objects (you Xia, should be taught).
I show a pencil and ask: “What is it?”. Children enthusiastically respond: