The Nature and structure of aggression in domestic and foreign literature
Parents become unbearable, quarrelling with the child and with each other because of his education ( M. Mead “Child development”( )). And in this case, when raising children in an atmosphere of constant quarrels, fights, misunderstandings in the family the child is cultivated and enhanced by their inability to contain immediate emotional reactions, anxiety, conflict. Infected irritability adults, children carry it on his / her immediate environment – peers. And, I want to repeat that in the younger preschool age children “adults act as carriers of models of action and relationships in the world” (B. alcone( )). And, of course, at this age in the first place such samples are parents.
The impact of family management on the assimilation of the aggressive behavior of children.
The issues of family education and the influence of family relationships on the child have been developed in the framework of the psycho-pedagogical approach (K. D. Ushinsky, A. S. Makarenko, V. A. Sukhomlinsky, E. A. Arkin, A. N. Leont’ev, A. V. Zaporozhets, N. And.Lisin, V. K. Capirlo, etc.).
The authors dealing with this issue assign an important role of early experience of raising a child in a specific cultural environment, family traditions and emotional background of the relationship of parents to child.
M. Mead ( ), studying primitive societies, made a very interesting observation. In the communities where the child has a negative experience, usually formed negative personality traits. In particular, the style of interaction with adults is as follows:
the early mother takes the child from the breast, for a long time to work out, communication with mother rarely happens. Further education remains sufficiently severe: mainly used frequent punishment, hostility children in relation to each other does not cause adult conviction. As a result, are formed such qualities as anxiety, suspicion, strong aggressiveness, selfishness and cruelty.
Aaron and others having conducted an extensive examination revealed features of children. Who enjoyed the reputation of a cruel and angry. It was noted that such children usually have a tendency to be aggressive towards their children (children under-loved, abandoned).
A. A. Bodalev ( ) believes that the other person and his actions is a mere repetition of authoritative evaluation for the child to adults. Hence parents are the benchmark by which children check and build on their behavior.
Transmitting a socially rewarding experience, parents sometimes. Passed and its negative aspects, which is very emotionally charged “guide to action”. Not having personal experience, the child is not able to correlate the correctness of the imposed patterns of behavior with the objective reality.
Themselves as parents, as noted by E. Byrne ( ), always happy, although they may not show the form when children imitate them, even in the worst possible attitude.
Thus, based on these data, we can conclude that on the socialization of aggression is influenced by two main factors:
* Sample the attitudes and behaviour of parents;
* The nature of the reinforcement of aggressive behavior from others.
In particular, links have been established between parental punishment and aggression in children. Parents often respond differently to aggressive behavior of children depends, does it for them or their peers (I. A. Furmanov ( )).
R. Baron, D. Richardson ( )also indicate the relationship between practices of th family guidance and aggressive behavior in children, which focused on the nature and severity of the punishment, and parental control of children’s behavior. In General revealed that severe penalties are associated with relatively high levels of aggression in children (Eron, etc.), and inadequate controls and childcare correlates with high levels of asocial behavior, often associated with aggressive behaviour (Patterson and Schouhamer-Leber).
R. S. Sears, E. E. Maccoby, K. Levin ( ) in their study also identified two main factors that determine the possible development of aggression in the child’s behavior:
1. Forbearance, i.e. the degree of readiness of parents to forgive the actions, to understand and accept the child;
2. The severity of punishment by the parents of the aggressive manifestations of the child.
The least aggressive those children whose parents were not inclined either to forgiveness or punishment. Their position is in condemning the aggression and bring this to the attention of the child, but without severe penalties in case of misconduct. Parents are more aggressive children behaved as though any children’s behaviour well, making their attitude to aggression more clear. However, when the child has committed a misdemeanor, he was severely punished. The strictness of the parents, if she posledovatelna sensitive enough for a child, can lead to suppression of aggressive impulses in the presence of parents outside the home the child will be even more aggressive.
In addition, prone to corporal punishment a parent, albeit unintentionally, gives the child an example of aggressive behavior (Baldur ( )).
The child, in this case, concludes that aggression towards others is valid, but the sacrifice is always necessary to choose smaller and weaker than himself. He learns that physical aggression is a means of influence on people and control them, and will resort to it when communicating with other children.
If the punishment is too excites and upsets the children, they may forget the cause that gave rise to such actions of the parents.
In fact, the strategy socializacii in this case interferes with the absorption of the rules of acceptable behavior, i.e., after severe punishment, the child is angry or upset. He can forget the pain, for which he was punished (Perry and Basin).
Finally, the children changed their behavior as a result of this strong influence, most likely you will not make rules that they try to instill, their internal values. I.e. they obey only up until a must see.
Thus, the formation of aggressive tendencies in children occurs in several ways:
1. Parents encourage aggressiveness in their children directly, or show an example (model) of appropriate behaviour towards others and the environment.
2. Parents punish children for the manifestation of aggressiveness. From the studies it is seen that:
* Parents who are very rarely suppress agresivnostjo their children, and nurture in child excessive aggressiveness.
* Parents who do not discipline their children for the manifestation of aggressiveness, most likely, raise them in excessive aggression.
* Parents, it is reasonable suppress aggression in their children, as a rule, foster self-control in situations that trigger aggressive behavior.
Influence on the manifestation of aggression in preschool age relations “parent-Child”.
Speaking of relations “parent-child”, we are talking about the relationship between them and about the position of the child in the family. As noted by Hanson and others in his research that if a child (no matter in which age group he belongs to) poor relationship with one or both parents, if the child feels that he is considered worthless, or does not feel parental support, he may be involved in criminal activity, will gang up on other kids, peers will speak of him as aggressive, he will behave aggressively towards parents.
Schäfer ( ) found that the relationship of parents to the child can be described with two pairs of important signs (See Fig. 1.2):
* rejection – the location;
* tolerance – deterrence.
The severity of these symptoms determines the nature of educational influence. V. I. Garbuzov ( ) identified three types of negative relationship of parents to child: